MaryAnn Wiethop



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Electric goniometers (EG) are a valid and reliable method of measuring joint angle changes during human movement. However, EG can be costly and impractical for use outside of laboratory settings. Therefore, an advanced textile sensor, the Kinematic Knee Sleeve (KiTT), was developed to track exercises and human movements. However, the KiTT has not been previously validated against a standard criterion. Purpose: To validate the KiTT against an EG during a series of lower body exercises in active college-aged adults. Methods: Following a five-minute warm-up on a stationary bike, participants (n = 13, age = 21 ± 1.8 yrs, body mass = 61.5 ± 3.4 kg) were fitted with the KiTT on their left leg and an EG on the lateral joint line of their right knee. Participants then completed 6 exercises (squat jump, countermovement jump, broad jump, box jump, box drop, lateral hop) in a randomized order. A total of 3 sets of 8 repetitions was completed per exercise, with the exception of lateral hops, which consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions performed. Paired sample t tests were used to analyze differences in knee flexion values between the EG and KiTT during the lower body exercises. Results: No significant differences were found in knee flexion values between the EG and KiTT in squat jumps, countermovement jumps, broad jumps, box jumps, and box drop exercises (p ≥ 0.05). Lateral hop knee flexion was significantly higher in the Kitt compared to the EG (p < .001). Conclusion: The KiTT is an accurate device for measuring knee joint angle changes during lower body exercises and is effective for use outside of a laboratory. The Kitt can be utilized during rehabilitation, practice, or game settings for measuring and monitoring knee angle range of motion.


Research and Creative Experience for Undergraduates (RCEU)



College Name

College of Education


Ryan T. Conners

Publication Date


Document Type



Electric goniometer, Kinematic Knee Sleeve

Validation of the Kinematic Knee Sleeve for Measuring Joint Angle Changes in Active Young Adults



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