Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Chair

Marita A. O'Brien

Committee Member

Jeffrey Neuschatz

Committee Member

Jodi Price


Metacognition., Awareness., Tornado warning systems., Tornadoes--Psychological aspects., Environmental psychology.


This study is a partial replication of the Schultz et al. (2010) study, examining behavioral response to tornado warnings while driving. Prior experience with tornadoes was collected to examine its influence on response to the scenario and confidence ratings. Additionally, the effect of weather elements (hail and rain) and protective action recommendations were manipulated in scenarios after which participants were asked to choose their likely response. Lastly, confidence ratings were measured to test whether confidence ratings were influenced by participants' responses to the given scenario. Results indicated that prior experience did not influence responses given to the scenario. Results also illustrated that the inclusion of weather elements and protective action recommendations did not significantly influence whether participants chose a safe or unsafe response. Lastly, results indicated that prior experience influenced confidence ratings such that more experience led participants to report higher confidence than participants with lower or no prior experience.



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