Carly Gray

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Chair

Nathan L. Tenhundfeld

Committee Member

Kristin Weger

Committee Member

Lisa Vangsness


Human information processing, Decision making, Information visualization, Dashboards (Management information systems)--Design


This study considered the design and formatting of data visualizations as framing effect catalysts among leader and subordinate Air Force personnel. Gain and loss framing was applied to dashboard prototypes by incorporating colors with known population stereotypes (i.e., red and green) and emphasizing completed or remaining tasks. Users’ performance, preferences, and risk tendency were measured in response. Risk-aversion, performance and preference were expected to be higher in the loss frame for leaders and higher in the gain frame for subordinates. Study results did not fully support the involvement of role with framing effects, and main effects were observed for some measures. These outcomes diverged from past investigations of Prospect Theory and reinforced some aspects of competing theories. The use of a novel asset (training tasks) with a potentially unique decision weighting function, repeated exposure, and possibility of an unknown covariate such as organizational climate may have contributed to these results.



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